When you delete product information in Shopify there is no way to retrieve it. But there is a way to use Airtable as a convenient backup of your product information.
Once your product information has fully synced from Shopify to Airtable simply clone your base. Rename the clone with the date of the backup. If you want to retrieve data from this clone base you can either copy/paste the necessary information into your main Shopify base. Just remember to not copy over Shopify Ids for any missing products or variants, as Shopify will create new ones.